Frequently Asked Essiac Questions

Questions about the Essiac Herbal Remedy

Please note: The Essiac Council does not give advice on the management of either personal or general health conditions. If you have a medical condition you should consult your doctor.

Questions about Essiac that may be of general interest are always welcome for consideration.

1. Q: Why is the Sheila Snow Fraser Essiac Archive so important?

A: The Sheila Snow Fraser Essiac Archive represents a unique collection of authentic material including cancer case histories from Rene Caisse’s study records assembled by Sheila Snow and Mary McPherson who worked with Rene in her later years in Bracebridge, Ontario, Canada.

2. Q: Is Essiac a cure for cancer?

A: Essiac cannot be claimed as a definitive cure for cancer but there always have been, and still are, people taking the tea who ‘improve more than can be explained.’

While Rene Caisse was in the process of developing and perfecting the Essiac formulae during the latter 1920’s – 1930’s, she had the backing of some of the most respected doctors in the field of medical research in Canada, including Dr. Frederick Banting of the Banting Institute, Department of Medical Research, at the University of Toronto. Banting was famous for his discovery of insulin and is quoted as saying to Caisse at one point: “I will not say you have a cure for cancer. But you have more evidence of a beneficial treatment for cancer than anyone in the world.”

As far as Rene was concerned her goal had always been the control of cancer and alleviation of pain. She firmly believed that if cancer couldn’t be cured, like diabetes it could be effectively controlled without resorting to the intrusive and frequently damaging treatment programs of the day, enabling the patient to live a full and pain-free life often into old age.

3. Q: Is Essiac a dietary supplement or a food?

A: Essiac is a non-toxic dietary supplement that the body recognises and responds to as a food.

4. Q: What are the benefits of the Essiac herbs?

A: Collectively the four herbs as specified in Rene Caisse’s four-herb Classic Essiac Tea are generally considered to actively support the immune system and have value in the detoxification process. The Essiac Formulas.

5. Q: What are the side effects of the tea and is it safe to take?

A: When the Essiac formula is correctly prepared and taken at the recommended dosage, there are no adverse side effects even when taking the tea long term. Short term, sometimes occasional headaches and diarrhoea have been reported due to the initial detoxification process. Nausea has been reported in cases where the tea has been mixed with alcohol.

6. Q: What does Essiac tea taste like?

A: Essiac is a pleasant tasting herbal tea with slightly woody overtones.

7. Q: Once it is made up how long does Essiac tea last?

A: Providing the containers, including the tops, have been properly sterilized and sealed and the tea is kept in the fridge unopened, it can be kept for up to a year.

8. Q: How long can you store the Essiac herbs before use?

A: Sheep sorrel leaves and stems are good for 18 months from harvesting providing they are stored in a cool, dark, dry place preferably in glass jars with well-fitting lids. Harvested root and bark herbs are good for a minimum of three years if they are stored in the same way. Bulk supplies can be kept in food-grade cotton or hessian sacks.

9. Q: Can Essiac herbs be stored in a large, plastic box?

A: Essiac herbs should never be stored in plastic bags or containers. Herbs protected in plastic for shipping should be unpacked immediately on receipt and stored as in answer 8.

10. Q: How can I tell how much Sheep sorrel root there is in my Essiac tea?

A: Check the label on the package for details. If the root percentage isn’t detailed on the list of ingredients, call the supplier and ask why. Don’t buy ready-made-up dry mix that doesn’t have a sell-by date stamped on the package.

11. Q: How do you make Essiac tea?

A: Essiac tea is always prepared by decoction where the herbs are brought to boiling and simmered just between 10 and 20 minutes depending on how much Sheep sorrel root is included in the mix. The prepared decoction must be covered and allowed to cool naturally, steeping for 10-12 hours to extract the full range of active ingredients and mineral content from the herb material. See books; Complete Essiac Essentials, 2020 edition,  Black Root Medicine 2014 and Essiac Essentials Handbook 2017 in Publications

12. Q: What types of cancer does Essiac work with?

A: Generally, it has been observed that correctly prepared Essiac taken at the correct dosage may have some remedial benefit in the majority of cases. This very much depends on the type of cancer and a person’s individual circumstances.

13. Q: How do you take Essiac tea and what is the correct dosage?

A: Rene Caisse recommended 1 fluid ounce/2 Tablespoons/30ml tea a day diluted in 2 fluid ounces/4Tablespoons/60ml warm water. The dosage may be extended to a maximum of 2 fluid ounces/4 Tablespoons/60ml tea to the same amount of water twice daily. In circumstances where the ‘all roots and bark’ is the better option, taking 1 fluid ounce/2 Tablespoons/30ml tea diluted in 2 fluid ounces/4 Tablespoons/60ml warm water twice daily has been seen to be well tolerated.  See Case History No. 13 & Case History No. 14  A smaller, twice daily dose of 4 Teaspoons/20ml tea diluted with 8 Teaspoons/40ml warm water has been seen to be equally effective. Link to Case History 12

14. Q: Does Essiac tea remain beneficial if you take it over an extended period of time?

A: Again, this depends on the individual circumstances. It has been observed that people taking the tea long term with regular short rest periods have found benefit. See Question 19

15. Q: Is Essiac beneficial for diabetes?

A: Historically Essiac has been recorded as showing some benefit for diabetes. See Minnie Norris’ Testimony, Homemaker’s Articles ‘Could Essiac Halt Cancer’ and Question 20.

16. Q: Did Rene Caisse use any other herbs in her Essiac tea in addition to the standard four?

A: Both Sheila and Mary commented to Mali Klein that Rene would occasionally add Watercress cautiously and selectively to the classic four-herb formula, while a reliable, local eye witness account to Sheila Snow verified the nurse also included Goldthread herb as an extra variation according to her some of her patients’ needs. She always maintained she had discarded Red clover early on during her years researching with mice, but Sheila felt strongly there was a good case for bringing it back actively into the Essiac pharmacopeia. Reference: Essiac Essentials, Sheila Snow & Mali Klein, 1999. Mali Klein continued the work while investigating her hypothesis re. the Medicine Man’s original eight-herb formula. She reintroduced the herb in root form in Black Root Medicine, The Original Native American Formula, Mali Klein, 2014. See Snow & Klein Publications, Ebooks, Complete Essiac Essentials, Black Root Medicine

17. Q: Was the Medicine Man a member of the Ojibwa tribe?

A: There is neither proof nor any indication whatsoever that he was Ojibwa. There were six Nations living in Northern Ontario in the 1890’s. He could have been a member of any one of them or a refugee from the Indian wars across the border. See Snow & Klein Publications, Ebooks, Complete Essiac Essentials, Black Root Medicine

18. Q: How did Rene Caisse find out that Sheep sorrel was so important in Essiac and why do we need to take the other herbs?

A: Rene observed the importance of the action of Sheep sorrel herb when she was working on lab mice inoculated with tumour tissue at the request of Dr. Robert Fisher and his associates,1926-29. She tested decoctions of each of the herbs in the Medicine Man’s formula individually, aiming to produce a simpler, equally effective therapy that could be made more easily available for a large number of patients.  Sheep sorrel was the herb proved primarily effective against cancer cells when administered as an injectable therapy. Rene Caisse testified  to the Commissioners at the February 1939 Subcommittee Hearing that a good number of her patients who were taking the injection didn’t need any other treatment. For the patients who could not take the injection she found Sheep sorrel to be equally effective as an oral therapy in conjunction with Burdock, Slippery elm and Turkey rhubarb. The three latter herbs were shown to be effective when taken orally in decoction as a three-herb detoxification therapy to deal with the debris resulting from tumour breakdown. Nowadays people taking Essiac Tea have occasionally reported passing unusually smelly motions as the decoction gets to work, sometimes accompanied by a few days of diarrhoea at the beginning.  See Caisse, Rene Testimony, Item 1, also see ‘I Was Canada’s Cancer Nurse’ page 7

19. Q: Why did Rene Caisse advise giving breaks from Essiac?

A: Rene always advocated periodically taking a few days or even a week off taking the tea to support the natural detoxification process. Drinking plenty of water is essential to treatment with the option of continuing with the Burdock Tea option for a couple of weeks. People did that in the early days at Clouds Trust and found it to be effective, particularly if they were nervous about stopping the tea for as long as two weeks at a time.  See: Bracebridge Clinic Item 3, Formulas, Burdock Detox Tea;  Snow & Klein Publications, Complete Essiac Essentials, revised 2020 edition

20. Q: If Mali Klein has taken Essiac continually for thirty years, why hasn’t she taken any time off from the tea as she recommends in her books?

A: Mali – ‘l take time off when I’m travelling, sometime several consecutive weeks with no adverse effect, but normally I take the tea six days a week with Sundays off. I have a very strong tendency towards Type 2 diabetes, following in the footsteps of my father who died of complications of the disease when he was sixty-eight. I was forty-three when I started taking Classic Essiac Tea having been on an incredibly careful diet for nine years when I couldn’t eat anything sweet except an apple and one spoonful of sugar was enough to send me into Candida overload and serial vomiting. Giving up drinking Guinness and stirring three heaped teaspoonfuls of sugar into every cup of tea I drank daily had been particularly painful at that time in my life.

I was nursing my husband full time when I started taking Essiac in March 1994, not because of the sugar problem, more that I was concerned about my decreasing energy levels. We couldn’t both be sick. Within a week I felt better for taking it and very surprised three months later when grief prompted a what-the-hell attack on a bunch of grapes in a fruit bowl and I didn’t get sick. My system had normalized. I could eat every kind of fruit, even watermelon, although I didn’t risk that until a couple of years later when chocolate in moderation was back on the menu. Fortunately, I’d entirely lost the taste for sweet tea and alcohol was no longer an option.’  See Minne Norris Testimony, Homemaker’s Articles

21. Q: If somebody has gone through cancer and got the all clear and wants to keep fit and healthy, should they keep on taking Essiac regularly or should they start taking longer breaks and taper it off?

A: Do what you feel comfortable with. You are in your body 24 hours a day, 7 days a week and you’ve got to learn to listen to it, to what it’s telling you it wants to do. A 15ml/ I Tablespoon maintenance dose works well with the option of occasionally doubling the dose for a couple of weeks, varying the dosage with Essiac Clover or Essiac Gold and feeling comfortable about taking time off when you go on vacation. It’s very much up to you. See Snow & Klein Publications, Ebooks, Complete Essiac Essentials, Black Root Medicine

22. Q: Can children take Essiac?

A: Excerpt from The Complete Essiac Essentials, 2020 revised edition.

The parents of a three-year old girl with an inoperable brain tumor reported using Essiac successfully, as a result of careful observation and their intuitive responses to their daughter’s needs to decide on the correct dosage to treat her condition.

Two months after diagnosis in 1977 they began by giving her four teaspoons of the decoction daily. One month later her WBC was down to 3300 from 4000 and her condition was improving. They tried reducing it to three teaspoons four months after diagnosis, but her condition did not respond well and she was back on four teaspoons, rising briefly to five for a couple of weeks the following month. Seven months after diagnosis she had put on 2lbs in weight and was doing well on four teaspoons daily, reducing to three teaspoons by the eighth month.

Ten months after diagnosis she was back to four teaspoons daily after a slight deterioration in condition, which adjusted after she had been drinking the higher dose for two weeks. She remained on the four teaspoons daily for the next twenty-two months until her parents felt her condition had stabilized sufficiently to reduce the dose back to three teaspoons daily. Four years and three months after diagnosis she was drinking one tablespoon of the tea every morning. Seven months later she was drinking one tablespoon every other day. Her parents reported her progress to recovery in a series of letters to Rene Caisse and then to Mary who had continued to supply them with the tea. See Case Histories File 9, Newspaper Clippings File 25.

23. Q: Is Essiac tea safe for animals?

A: Yes, when the correct dosage has been assessed according to the animals’ weight i.e. a large and heavy dog of 120 pounds would need an adult dose of 1oz/30 ml daily.

Excerpt from The Complete Essiac Essentials, 2020 revised edition.

A thirteen-year old Siamese cat, diagnosed with malignant melanoma found growing as a small, blue-black lump on the back of his neck was treated once a day with a 2 ml dose of Classic Essiac tea squirted down his throat with a plastic syringe for four weeks. The tumor was treated topically with Sheep Sorrel Solution once daily prior to being successfully removed. The cat continued with his daily dose of tea and a blood test taken fifteen months later showed all his vital organs were in excellent condition.

An old and ailing basset hound was rescued from the street on an icy cold February day in New York. The veterinarian found one large tumor on his belly, another on his liver and a third on his nose. He said that the dog only had a week to live and nothing more could be done for him. The new owner started him on Classic Essiac tea and within a few weeks the stomach and liver tumors had decreased in size, while the one on the nose persisted as an open, running sore which the dog kept scratching. His owner applied the decoction as a poultice at bedtime employing protective measures to ensure that he could not touch the dressing and the wound began to heal. Four months later he was reported as being much better and very much alive.

24. Q: Does Essiac cause kidney stones?

A: There is no record of Essiac causing kidney stones if it is properly made up and taken at the correct dosage.

25. Q: Does Essiac adversely affect the liver?

A: Taken at the correct dosage Essiac appears to support the liver function.

26. Q: Is Essiac just as effective taken in capsule form as in decoction?

A: Essiac pills normally consist of finely powdered uncooked herb in capsule form. They will not give the same beneficial values as the decoction which has been cooked and allowed to steep for 10- 12 hours in order to fully release the beneficial properties of the herbs.

27. Q: Can you take Essiac alongside other treatments like chemotherapy and radiotherapy?

A: Anecdotal evidence suggests that correctly prepared Essiac taken at the correct dosage has been shown to mitigate the side effects of radiotherapy treatment both as a support for the immune system and as an aid for maintaining positive energy levels. Anecdotal evidence also suggests Essiac exhibits similar values during chemotherapy when the tea should be discontinued 24 hours before treatment and resumed not less than 48 hours after. See Case History 13 and Case History 14

28. Q: What’s the best diet to have while taking Essiac?

A: What is known as a healthy Mediterranean diet is generally considered to support the immune system. See Case History 13 and Case History 14, Complete Essiac Essentials, 2020 edition, Chapter  ‘Doing Essiac Well’

29. Q: Could a skin rash be the result of an individual herb, a combination of the herbs, or the liver detoxing as a result of daily dosing?

A: Skin rashes as a side effect of taking correctly prepared Essiac at the correct dosage are so rare as to be almost non-existent. If they do occur, it’s worth double checking the ingredients on the packet against those listed on the Medicine Man’s original formula and whether the herbs are certified organic.

30. Q: Would you advise growing your own herbs and where can I get quality Essiac seeds?

A: Homegrown herbs will always be the best option if you have the choice of either:

  1. a collection of 14” pots to fill with organic, lime-free compost with space on a balcony or terrace.
  2. access to a patch of clean soil that hasn’t been treated with chemicals, hasn’t been recently composted and can be suitably protected from pets.
  3. for seed suppliers see Resources page

31. Q: How much of each of the herbs do I need to grow to keep one person in Essiac for a year?

A: The quantities needed very much depend on the dosage levels required. See chart below:

Essiac Quantity Chart

32. Q: Where can I buy Essiac?

A: For Essiac containing not less than 12.5% Sheep Sorrel root see the Resources page.

33. Q: Could Essiac benefit conditions other than cancer?

A: Anecdotal evidence suggests that Essiac may be beneficial for some autoimmune diseases, also stomach and leg ulcers, and thyroid conditions. Many people take it as an immune system support.

34. Q: I am experiencing localised pain around the tumour area, why is it happening, and should I stop taking the tea?

A: In the event of discomfort around the tumor area Rene Caisse advised stopping the tea for a few days until the pain had subsided and resuming treatment at a reduced dose before gradually building up to the recommended dosage level. i.e. starting at 5ml/1 teaspoon diluted in warm water daily and building up to 30ml/2 Tablespoons over the course of a 10-14 day period.

35. Q: If Rene Caisse said that the whole Sheep sorrel plant must be used, why is Mali Klein just using the root?

A: Mali Klein started using solely Sheep sorrel root in the tea as an experiment after ‘The Complete Essiac Essentials’ was first published in 2010. See Sheep Sorrel page, Case History 12, Case History 13, Case History 14, The Complete Essiac Essentials 2020 Edition, Chapter 17, ‘The Essence of Essiac’.

36. Q: There are a number of products using the Essiac moniker, some with more effective formulations than others, and some easier to obtain than others. Would it be better to consume a substandard Essiac rather than none at all?

A: Yes, but who would want to when there are some very good products on the market? See Resources page

37. Q: Are any of the Essiac herbs known to cause reflux?

A: There is nothing on record about this; rather Essiac is known to relieve reflux.

38. Q: Have there been any documented cases of Essiac working on skin cancers?

A: Rene Caisse successfully treated Edith Guppy, a 21-year-old woman for a skin cancer on her hand, twenty-five times over a period of fifteen months. Edith testified at both the February and July 1939 hearings and was still cancer-free twenty years later.  See Edith Guppy, Cancer Commission Hearings, Testimony 1, Testimony 2

39. Q: Would someone who has long term liver and kidney damage, who has also been diagnosed with prostate cancer benefit from taking Essiac?

A: If the individual has access to the correct mixture, correctly prepared and taken at the correct dosage, there is no reason why not.

40. Q: How long does Essiac take to work?

A: This depends very much on the condition of the individual and the cancer they are treating. Some people benefit within a few weeks and others have benefited more slowly over 12-15 months.

41. Q: Is it true that Mali Klein is allergic to Sheep sorrel and that you can become allergic to Essiac if you take it for a prolonged period?

A: Mali Klein is not allergic to Sheep Sorrel. She has been taking the Essiac formulae continuously as an experiment since March 1994 with absolutely no deleterious side effects and definitely no allergies to the tea. However, she is pollen allergic which means she had to wear a mask to protect herself from the dust when she was processing the Sheep sorrel stems and leaves after harvesting. Since 2010 when she began using the formulae where the Sheep sorrel content is 100% root, she has experienced no problems with pollen allergies during harvesting and no allergies or deleterious side effects as a result of taking the tea. Mary McPherson was also allergic to Sheep sorrel pollen and always mixed her herbs in a closed glass jar i.e. she measured them separately into the jar, screwed down the lid and shook it vigorously to mix. See Complete Essiac Essentials 2020 revised edition

42. Q: If someone with no active cancer is using Essiac tea as an immune boost or a prevention therapy, would alternate-day-dosing or taking the tea three times a week be recommended as opposed to keeping to a regular daily dose?

A: Providing the correct formula is mixed to the correct proportions there is no reason why the dosage levels cannot be varied as described. Generally speaking, 1 Tablespoon/15ml tea in 2 Tablespoons/30ml warm water is considered a good dosage level when taken as a preventative.

43. Q: If Rene only treated some of her patients once a week, did she treat them with an injection as opposed to the tea or did they take the tea as well as having an injection?

A: Some patients were treated by injection only while others took the injection and a single dose of tea weekly. Some of those treated by injection were sent home with a bottle of tea to take either three times a week or on a daily basis. The patients who couldn’t take the injection were treated solely with Essiac tea, where it was seen that the oral treatment seemed to take longer to work in comparison with those who were taking the injectiable therapy. Others were also treated with Sheep sorrel douches and topical solution.

44. Q: What is the difference between Turkey rhubarb (Rheum palmatum) and Indian rhubarb (Rheum officinale) and which one did Rene Caisse prefer to use for her own patients?

A: Rheum palmatum, originating from the mountains in N. China and Tibet, is said to be medicinally superior and better tasting in comparison with Rheum officinale from Indonesia, and was Rene Caisse’s preferred choice when treating her own patients.

45. Q: Why did Rene Caisse sell the Essiac formula to Resperin Corporation?

A: David Fingard’s Resperin Corporation deal was the only offer that appeared to have the necessary financial backing to open research clinics across Canada to make Essiac available to human patients rather than relying testing solely on animals. Rene didn’t like David Fingard but she was impressed with the three doctors involved who were part of the team who visited her home, September 3, 1977. Ultimately the trials never got off the ground and rights to the formula were sold on. See Resperin Corporation

46. Q: Essiac Canada International claims to be the only manufacturer to have the rights to Nurse Rene M. Caisse’s proprietary herbal formula. Is this true? And what formula do they have the actual trademark on?

A: Essiac Canada International have the trademark on and therefore the sole right to distribute the specific ESSIAC® formula Rene Caisse sold to Resperin Corporation, October 26, 1977, where Sheep sorrel Rumex acetosella (leaves only) and Indian rhubarb Rheum officinale are listed alongside Burdock Arctium lappa and Slippery elm Ulmus fulva.

47. Q: Who is Dr. Brusch and what is his involvement in Essiac?

A: Dr. Charles Armeo Brusch was a medical doctor who founded the Brusch Medical Center in Cambridge, Massachusetts with his brother, Dr. Joseph Brusch in the late 1940’s. He was introduced to Rene Caisse and her Essiac herbal remedy in 1959 and invited her to participate in trials at the Medical Center featuring terminal cancer patients as well as lab mice inoculated with human carcinoma supplied by the Memorial Sloane-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research, NY. The trials lasted from May 1959 until the supply of mice was suspended in June 1960. Rene Caisse had no more contact with Dr. Brusch until he wrote to her in September 1976 after the 1974-1976 MSKCC trials had been terminated. He agreed to be interviewed for the Homemaker’s 1977 article, mentioning three successful 1959 case histories (breast cancer with lung involvement; inoperable lung cancer; basal cell carcinoma) and the ongoing case of Mr. Patrick McGrail who was being treated at the Center with herbs that Rene Caisse had recently supplied.  See Brusch Correspondence 1 and Correspondence 2, Homemaker’s Artickle, Patrick McGrail.

48. Q: Did Rene Caisse share the Essiac formula with Dr. Brusch?

A: By his own admission live on Elaine Alexander’s ‘Staying Alive’ radio program, January 19, 1986, Rene Caisse never shared any of the Essiac formulas with him. This was verified in a taped telephone call between himself and Sheila Snow, January 1980 and backed by Mary McPherson witnessing a telephone call between Rene Caisse and Dr. Brusch in October 1977 a few days before the Resperin contract was due to be signed, where he turned down her offer to share the formula with him on the grounds that it might prejudice his official capacity in endorsing the agreement. Rene had told Sheila during a taped call July 11, 1977, that she had never given him the formula for the injection.  See Audio File 13, Audio Files 118-121. 

49. Q: Is it correct to refer to the Brusch formula as Essiac, and is it the same as the original eight herb Native American formula?

A: The Brusch formula, also known as the Flor-essence formula, is not the same as Rene Caisse’s Essiac and the two must never be confused. Neither is the Brusch formula or any of the Flor-essence products the same as the Medicine Man’s original eight-herb formula. According to letters exchanged between Dr. Charles A. Brusch and Sheila Snow and Mary McPherson, the Flor-essence formula was developed by Dr. Charles Brusch and his friend Mr. Elmer Grove in the latter 1980’s. The Flor-essence product lists a ‘traditional’ formula combining Red clover, Kelp, Blessed Thistle, Slippery Elm, Turkish Rhubarb, Sheep sorrel, Watercress and Burdock root, with no specification as to which parts of the featured herbs are included in the remedy other than the Burdock root. The tradition the formula claims to represent is unspecified.  See Brusch Correspondence, Flor-essence.

50. Q: Who was Gary Glum and what significance does he have in the Essiac story?

A: Gary was a chiropractor from Los Angeles who was the first person to publish a version of the four-herb formula, effectively giving Essiac back to the people in 1988.  See Gary Glum, Calling of An Angel.

51. Q: Did Gary Glum have the correct formula and where did he get it?

A: According to Mary McPherson, Gary had a reliable version of the four-herb formula which he bought for an undisclosed sum from Mrs. Pat Judson, President of FACT (Foundation for Alternative Cancer Therapies) Metro- Detroit, Michigan. Mary was satisfied that Rene Caisse had gifted this version to Mrs. Judson in return for her help in publicizing Essiac as well as hosting the 1978 FACT Detroit Convention at which Rene was invited to speak, September 16. See F.A.C.T. Convention, Detroit 1978

52. Q: In Mali Klein’s book The Complete Essiac Essentials Centennial Edition, she mentions that Black Root Medicine may be contraindicated for cancers of the brain, p. 151? Why would it be a problem for say ‘brain tumours’ while the other formulas are not?

A: The answer to the question can be found in the description of the active ingredients in the Periwinkle herb which is included only in the Black Root Medicine formula. Common to both Vinca major and Vinca minor, the alkaloid vincamine is said to improve blood flow to the brain. The caution suggesting Black Root Medicine may be contraindicated for cancers of the brain acknowledges the possibility, however small, of a brain tumour increasing in size in response to its blood vessels expanding due to improved blood flow to the brain.

Mali suggested the contraindication as a result of her experience nursing her husband who had been diagnosed with grade 4 Glioblastoma multiforme. At least one of the many MRI scans he was given involved minutely checking the vascular system of the tumour with a view to possible future treatment. Obviously a brain tumour is resident in an enclosed space within the skull where any increase in size can have life threatening consequences. At what stage Black Root Medicine could be considered as a possible treatment for brain cancer would depend on type, size and progression.

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